Federal Budget Process (BUDG7103)

Federal Budget Process

Federal Budget Process


The federal budget process is a highly structured system carried out in three distinct phases (Budget Formulation, Congressional Action, and Budget Execution). In this brief but comprehensive course, explore the major phases and timing of the federal budget process; principal participants and their roles; current issues affecting budgetary decisions; and how the budget is reviewed and audited.

This course contains practical case exercises that can be completed using Microsoft Excel.  If available, please bring a laptop containing Excel software to class with you.  If you do not have access to a laptop, or you do not have a basic knowledge of Excel, the exercises can be completed using a hand calculator.

Who Should Attend?

Anyone who needs an overview of the federal budget process.




16 CPE's

Class Type:

This course is currently being offered in the following training modalities:

Learning Outcomes:

  • Describe the phases of the federal budget process
  • Describe the roles of the President, Office of Management and Budget, federal agencies, the Congress, the Government Accountability Office (GAO), the Inspector General (IG), the Congressional Budget Office (CBO), and the Treasury Department in the budget process
  • Identify current issues that influence federal budgetary decisions
  • Recognize the impact of the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) and the GPRA Modernization Act (GPRAMA) on the budget process

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Day one of two

  • Federal Budget Overview
    • Terms and concepts
    • The budget process and participants
    • The President's budget
    • Budgeting and the economy
    • Budget baselines
    • Budget functions
  • Budget Formulation
    • Preparation of the President's budget
    • Agency's budget justification to OMB
    • Budget documents
    • Formulation schedule
  • Budget Examination and Review by OMB
    • OMB's history and functions
    • Organization of OMB
    • OMB circulars
  • End day one


Day two of two

  • Congressional Action on the Budget
    • Overview of the congressional budget process
    • Budget resolution
    • Reconciliation
    • Appropriations acts
    • Continuing resolutions
    • Authorizing legislation
    • Influencing appropriations
    • Types of spending
    • Budget enforcement and sequestration
    • Congressional Budget Office
  • Budget Execution
    • Overview of the budget execution cycle
    • Treasury warrants
    • Apportionments
    • Fund allotments
    • Obligations and expenditures
    • Reporting
    • Deprogramming and transfers
    • Deferrals and rescissions
    • Supplemental appropriations
  • Review and Audit of Budget Results
    • GAO audits
    • Appropriations law
    • Inspectors General
    • GPRA
  • End day two


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